Explaining Expansion.

The Big-Bang-Theory is very much the product of observing that today’s universe is expanding and then simply extrapolating time, the expansion, and all the universe contains, backwards until it was smaller than an Atom and back even further until all science breaks down at a singularity. Such a theory and observations accommodates the expansion of Space-time very well and so our Big-Stretch universe should be based on the expansion of Space and time.

It would have been easy to follow on from here with a groundless story of how Space-time now simply expands into a timeless realm of complete emptiness which we have called Anti-space. However, our home universe is far more complex and so, like constructing a building, one must first lay the appropriate foundations for far more exciting things to develop. Our foundations, covered in the next few pages, are actually soundly based on the known movement of all particles within today’s universe.

It is fundamental, within a Big-Stretch universe, that we provide a method where expanding Space-time mirrors the way Gravity operates over distances.

This will enable an expanding Space-time universe to provide Gravity. To provide and understand Gravity it is crucial to understand the expansion of Space-time from any observed place in the universe. Space-time 'expanding' more stretched or warped near Anti-space will offset centers of expansion and provide the universe with Gravity. Meaning our Space-time expands into the empty void of Anti-space very much like water overflowing a bucket full of water. Strangely, this same ‘warped’ expanding Space-time may also be shown to be expanding evenly, which will be fully explained on page 11 where the exact source of Gravity is explicitly explained. 

Science today cannot explain the very source of Gravity nor can science explain why a massless particle speeds away in all directions at the speed of light while a particle-of-matter meaning an Atom falls to the ground with Gravity. .

Consequently it is these known and observed characteristics of all particles within expanding Space-time which has provided the clues to allow the following reasoning to precisely explain the configuration of raw, particle-less Space-time and how it expands and interacts with the emptiness of stationary and non-expanding Anti-space within our developing Big-Stretch universe.

We live within a universe of expanding Space-time, so understanding expansion is imperative and needs to be one of our first and most important objectives.  *****(I stress the importance of this)***** 

The key to explaining expanding Space-time is the ability to unravel the characteristics of ‘expansion’. Because of ‘expansion’ Space-time is always on the move, of which the ramifications are frequently overlooked by science. Since all particles reside within this very same ‘expansion driven movement’ of 'Space' and 'time', all particles, mass-less and Matter, are unsurprisingly also subjected to this expansion driven movement’ of Space and time. By always accounting for this expansion driven movement’' a Big-Stretch universe can easily explain why mass-less particles speed away at the speed of light, why particles-of-matter fall to the ground with Gravity, and even why whole galaxies are accelerating away.

By unravelling the characteristics of ‘expansion’ we will show how one may combine the theories of General Relativity, Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. It is simply not possible to combine these successful theories without including the obvious ramifications of particles residing within the different aspects of ‘expansion’ of Space and time. 

The three aspects of expanding Space and time are; ‘all around overall expansion’, ‘centers of expansion’ and ‘one way expansion’. Particles simply behave differently when exposed to each of these different aspects of 'expansion' of Space and time.

Albert Einstein revealed with his Theory of Relativity that space and time are not absolutes they are instead relative to the location of the observer.

Special Relativity tells us that all laws of science shall be the same to all observers no matter their location.

Implication being space and time can best be explained relative to an observer.


Center-points of expansion.

To the observer or to a particle-of-matter, they are always located at the center of the whole of expanding Space-time, from where (of course) all Space and time moves (expands) away . For this reason there is no rational center to the universe other then the position of one’s self. Space-time expanding from these Center-points is responsible for the power and authority of Albert Einstein’s world of Relativity.

Dots of confetti randomly placed on an expanding balloon helps to explain the expansion of Space-time and how Albert Einstein’s world of Relativity is applied to our Big-Stretch universe:


What may at first appear as just an insignificant peculiarity will be one of the most important aspects of understanding how our universe of 'expanding' Space-time really functions.   

Notice how from the perspective of dot ‘A’ and in relation to dot ‘B’ anything travelling with expansion moves away from dot ‘A’ in the direction of dot ‘B’ while from the perspective of dot ‘B’ anything travelling with expansion moves in the opposite direction and towards dot ‘A’. This will be important in understanding how light or massless particles travel as 'part' of expansion. 

Now note how any observed dot of confetti appears stationary at the center of expansion while and all other dots of confetti ‘expand away’ from the observed dot of confetti. Observe another dot of confetti and it now becomes stationary at the center of expansion and all other dots of confetti ‘expand away’ again. One may place as many dots as one wishes at any positions, but only the observed dot of confetti is truly stationary at the center of expansion. 

Now tie a knot in a strip of rubber band, stretch it from both ends as lop sided as you wish. Like the dots of confetti on the balloon, the knot in the rubber band naturally always remains at the center of expansion. This will be important in understanding how particles-of-matter are moved by a mechanism called Gravity while at the same time remaining stationary within expansion. 


                                                                               Above : Scroll  mouse (or finger with phone) over rubber band

Actually, each dot of confetti and the knot within the expanding rubber band has created their very own permanent Anchored Center-point of expansion from where they observes themselves to be 'stationary' at the center of expansion; within our Big-Stretch universe these Center-points of expansion of Space-time is where all particles-of-matter reside and from where Special Relativity is best applied. 

One can go a ‘little crazy’ thinking about this ‘expansion thing’. Remarkably, to remain ‘completely stationary’ at a point of equilibrium within the expanding rubber a dot of confetti or the knot must be allowed to ‘move’.

Within a Big-Stretch universe, expanding Space-time is like the expanding rubber of the expanding balloon and the rubber band. A single particle-of-matter within expanding Space-time behaves in a most similar way. From any observed point or from the perspective of a particle-of-matter it remains stationary at the center of expansion from where almost all space expands away. A particle-of-matter being ‘moved’ by Gravity is really only maintaining its position of ‘stationary equilibrium’ at the center of all 'expanding' Space-time where it feels no force or movement. Because raw Space-time is massless, a complete understanding of Gravity will require the removal of the mass of the expanding rubber from our balloon and rubber band. The mechanism of Gravity which moves a particle-of-matter is driven solely by the relationship to what Space-time is expanding into.

One needs to hang on to this thought for later when we will explain ‘Station Momentum’ which will precisely illustrate how Gravity actually works. Actually, what we ‘perceive’ as Gravity is only the practice of particles-of-matter maintaining or attempting to maintain their natural stationary position within the expansion of Space-time.

At times I may wander from explaining an action from a wide perspective to explaining the action from the point of an observer which, at times, may contradict some things simply because an action afar may appear different than it will if you placed yourself there as an observer. For this I ask your indulgence.

For instance, if one sat on a giant expanding balloon it would appear to you, the observer that you were sitting stationary at the center of expansion. Now, if I sit next to you from my point of view I am now stationary at the center of expansion and you are now moving away with the expansion. The point here is that all is relative to the observer and the observer is always located at a Center-point, meaning an observer is always at the center of all expanding Space-time.

For the same reason I may say Space-time is expanding more in one direction or I may say Space-time is expanding evenly which will (hopefully) make sense when we completely explain Gravity. Again I ask your indulgence.

While one can visualize how two different types of solids, two liquids or two gases may possibly interact, it is difficult to imagine how two different types of, what is in actual fact, massless and particle-less nothingness or emptiness may interact with each other. When relating to expanding Space-time it sometimes helps to avoid the concept of mixing and replace it with a concept of overlaying. Because both raw Space-time and Anti-space are massless as well as particle-less both can be in the same place at the same time within their own right. The difficulty with Space-time is converting in one’s mind to three expanding dimensions. The difficulty with Anti-space is exploring an area of nothingness where not all the perimeters may ever be calculable. Mathematical science probably breaks down here because within non-expanding Anti-space there can be no passing of Space and so there can be no passing of time. Where there can be no passing of time is where we will later explore the concept of instant time. 

We have wished to provide a realm of complete emptiness into which our Big-Stretch universe of the fabric of Space and time can expand, unlike the Big-Bang universe which, nonsensically, does not expand into anything; The Big-Bang universe only expands from within, which is a concept which a human mind will perceive as not possible, but a concept which mathematical science says can be true even if it cannot be explained in a fully rational way. 

The very beginning can only be speculative. Possibly Space-time began expanding from a single point. Possibly a soft form of one of the many theories for inflation occurred. Possibly Space is static and always has been everywhere, and expansion occurs as a form of energy. Where this energy is expanding is what is commonly referred to as expanding Space-time and where there is no expansion of energy is where our Anti-space begins. Although this may be true, rather than talk of Energy-time we will stay with science and the concept of Space-time.  

Similar to which came first, the chicken or the egg, one may ask which came first the expansion of Space or the advancement of time? Any insignificant event within the void of Anti-space which requires time for that event to occur, may kick start the advancement of time. Because Space and time are inseparable the start of the advancement of time must also begin with the advancement or expansion of Space. Once expansion begins, the mere availability of an infinite void provides the unstoppable progression for the flow and expansion of both Space and time. It is as if expansion of Space-time occurs solely because Space-time is ‘falling’, and so expanding, into an infinite void of Anti-space.

Perhaps against almost insurmountable odds, entangled and broken or looped dimensions within a minuscule area of Anti-space just happened to align in a perfect configuration, so as to expose all three dimensions of length, width and height. The instant this minuscule area of Anti-space acquired all three dimensions of length, width and height Space-time was compelled to forever expand, for the simple reason, all three dimensions of length, width and height were also now coded as infinite. This infinity was simply driven by the ability to expand into the absolute emptiness and infinity of Anti-space.

Now, with its fate everlastingly secured, space was irreversibly set free and not only permitted, but actually coded, to rapidly follow its new found dimensions and expand eternally in all directions. With expansion began the concept of present moments of expansion and past moments of expansion which set in motion the fourth dimension of time, thus our new Big-Stretch universe of Space and time had begun. 

What we do know is that we will need to provide a method which provides for atoms-of-matter to fall with Gravity and mass-less particles to speed away at light speed. We do know we will need to provide a source for Dark-matter and eventually a source of particles-of-matter and somehow provide both with the very same source of Gravity. We do know we will need to provide an outcome which matches the predictions of the successful theories of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Special Relativity and somehow show exactly how all is seamlessly interconnected.

 We know what our objectives are so we know where we wish to go.

In reality, it is the movement and characteristics of all particles (which will be fully explained) which has allowed us to reason precisely how raw, particle-less, expanding Space-time should interact with the emptiness of non-expanding Anti-space within our Big-Stretch universe. So our rather difficult task will be to first offer a logical method for this to occur so that we can be pointing in the right direction from the very beginning

To construct almost anything and everything, Mother Nature always begins with the very smallest. Our next challenge will be to begin with and relate to the very smallest of nothingness to explain and construct the very largest of a whole universe.


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