Creating Super-Massive-Black-Holes.

‘Massless Accretion’

by Richard Freeman.

Why are Super-Massive-Black-Holes prevalent within our earliest universe, and why are there Super-Massive-Black-Holes at the center of Galaxies? Simple answer; because they were created first. 

 

Anti-space, being a infinite, non-expanding, void can effortlessly accommodate all facets of our expanding universe of Space-time so the difficult part is, not ‘fitting’ expanding Space-time into this complete void but, retaining some of its emptiness. This is achieved by trapping minuscule bubble-particles. Gravity then brings our bubble-particles together to create large cloud like pools of bubble-particles (Dark-matter).


An earliest strong form of Gravity and by a method we call ‘Massless Accretion’ creates Naked (without surrounding atoms-of-matter) Super-Massive-Black-Holes at the centers of cloud like structures of Dark-matter.

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Although Super-Massive-Black-Holes are prevalent within our earliest universe, little is known about how Super-Massive-Black-Holes first came into existence, and so this is an ongoing topic of intense investigation by today’s science.

Astronomers have long been mystified by how such massive, complex structures as Galaxies, with centers constructed of Super-Massive-Black-Holes, which are often powering Quasars, could have evolved so quickly, from nothing more than Atoms of mostly hydrogen, within the early Big-Bang universe. One may have expected the early and ferocious expansion of the instant Big-Bang universe to override the weak gravitational force of individual Atoms. 

Actually Science knows that the force of gravity is plainly too puny to bring this matter together. There are simply not enough atoms to produce enough gravity to bring this speeding apart matter together to produce the first stars. However there is a copious amount of Dark-matter which a Big-Stretch universe will make good use of. 

There are several theories depicting different scenarios for the formation of Super-Massive-Black-Holes which have only been observed (by their gravitational influence) at the hearts of Galaxies. The most common theories suggest Matter first clumped together. The only mechanism which can possibly bring copious amounts of Matter together is Gravity. Gravity and Matter has a snow ball effect. Gravity increases as it attracts more Matter which means more Gravity attracting even more Matter until Matter concentrated enough to form the first stars. There is no way for Matter, initially comprising of mostly hydrogen, to avoid the star making process.

Once a large star is formed strong solar winds blow out from the star preventing the star from becoming more massive. In an attempt to explain the existent of Black-Holes within our earliest universe science has hypothesized the first stars may have somehow been super sized (100,000 times more massive than our Sun and far larger than any star ever observed).

Eventually these very large super sized stars will go super nova at the end of their lifetime, which results in the star’s core collapsing and forming a super stellar size ‘seed’ Black-Hole.

Within a Big-Bang universe the largest stellar Black-holes known to exist would be required to somehow grow over a billion times in order to match some of the large Super-Massive-Black-Holes found only at the hearts of Galaxies.

Consequently, even the largest first ‘seed’ Black-Holes are required to either swallow an enormous amount of Matter or collide and combine with numerous other Black-Holes. Similar theories portray Galaxy collisions, which combine Black-Holes at the center of evolving Galaxies to finally create Super-Massive-Black-Holes.

There are millions of Stellar Black-Holes within the Galactic Disk of our Milky-Way-Galaxy alone, but none have apparently grown beyond the size of stellar Black-Holes.

There may be a reason why Stellar Black-Holes do not readily grow into Super-Massive-Black-Holes.  If Super-Massive-Black-Holes do evolve as theorized why are there not Black-holes of all sizes distributed throughout Galaxies?  

Why is there such a huge gap between the largest stellar Black-Holes and the smallest Super-Massive-Black-Holes?

In fact stellar Black-Holes, even after billions of years of Galaxy evolution, are not observed to ‘grow’ beyond ‘stellar size’ of 10 to a little over 30 solar mass in size, so in reality this may not take place.

However there are more problems: For example APM 08279 5255 is a Quasar powered by an incredible 20 billion solar mass Super-Massive-Black-Hole and is over 12 billion light years away, meaning it is observed as it was just 1.6 billion years after the Big-Bang.

This incredible, 20 billion solar mass Super-Massive-Black-Hole is also one of the largest ever ‘discovered’. How can it be that these relatively very young Super-Massive-Black-Holes are also some of the most massive?  One would expect only the oldest Super-Massive-Black-Holes to have grown over time be the most massive so why are some of the youngest as massive as some of the oldest? 

And more problems; It has obviously proven not possible to explain Galaxy formation by way of a Big-Bang.

Such a process of Matter accumulating this way would surly always harbour the oldest stars near the center of Galaxies and the youngest stars furthest from the center. Many of the very oldest stars reside in Globular Clusters in the most outer regions of Galaxies and are eons away in both distance and time from where the first Matter clumped to form the first stars in an area which must become the center of a Galaxy. To form these Globular Clusters of the very oldest stars you must have a very good reason why and how Matter first gathered in these outer regions eons away from where first Matter is said to have clumped to form the first stars. This absolutely impossible situation for a Big-Bang universe will be another key point in support of our Big-Stretch universe. We will shortly show how it was easily possible for Matter to first concentrate in a region well away from the center of a Galaxy, which will allow some of the first stars to form Globular Clusters. Because these stars were some of the first stars to form they can now be observed today to be some of the oldest. 

As opposed to stellar Black-Holes, which form from a collapsing star and appear to peak out at a little over 30 solar mass in size, Super-Massive-Black-Holes only reside at the center of Galaxies and may weigh from a few hundred thousand solar masses to several billion solar masses. Given this massive size disparity between stellar Black-holes and Super-Massive-Black-Holes they may well have had different beginnings, however, there is no theory with supporting evidence for this to have occurred within a Big-Bang universe.

Scientists are now amazed to discover the existence of Super-Massive-Black-Holes less than 900 million years "after the Big-Bang" which scientists say spells serious trouble for their current theories of Super-Massive-Black-Holes formation. These Super-Massive-Black-Holes should not be there within the earliest universe, this is because there has not been the time frame for Black-Holes of such super size to have formed by methods agreeing with current theories. As Science observes deeper into Space and so further back in time these issues of events happening too quickly is becoming more problematical and more common.

So one should ask; why do these objects appear to be forming too quickly to agree with current theories within our earliest universe?  An unavoidable ramification of our Big-Stretch model provides the answer: time dilation caused by faster expansion of Space-time. Within our Big-Stretch universe we do not only have a much less time consuming method of creating Super-Massive-Black-Holes we also have more ‘time’ available for them to evolve. This is because our Space-time expanded quicker in the beginning delivering faster light speed, stronger Gravity, and faster time. Because time ran faster, the speed of light and Gravity appeared at that time, the same as today. This means that these ‘extremely large’ Super-Massive-Black-Holes discovered within our early universe may not be as ‘Super-Massive’ as thought and they also had much more time to develop. When observing deep space objects from our 'now slower' Earth-time, one should make allowances for this 'expansion' caused time dilation.

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Within a Big-Stretch universe a much simpler, efficient and problem free process of Dark-matter simply coming together with gravity completely avoids the intricate and time consuming  process of forming theoretical and never been observed super (large) stars and exploding them as ‘super nova’ and somehow quickly growing Super-Massive-Black-Holes from these first ‘seed’ Black-Holes. 

Within our Big-Stretch universe there is no mystery here because Naked-(without Matter) Super-Massive-Black-Holes, with central regions composed of nothing more than Dark-matter, would have naturally formed very early within a Big-Stretch universe. 

When forming Super-Massive-Black-Holes, our clouds of Dark-matter can completely avoid the intricate procedure of Star making, a procedure which can only form Black-holes millions of times smaller than the kind of Super-Massive-Black-Holes, required at the hearts of Galaxies. Unlike ordinary Matter, and within an environment of higher Gravity than observed today, our clouds of Dark-matter can provide an easy and direct short-cut to forming Super-Massive-Black-Holes. The attraction of expanding Space-time to a minuscule piece of fragmented Anti-space (Dark-matter) is obviously, only minuscule. When a sufficiently dense amount of Dark-matter accumulates, expanding Space-time then expands freely towards the dense amount of Dark-matter, which naturally mirrors the way Space-time expands freely in all directions into the outer void of Anti-space. The wonderful part of this easy to understand concept is how it now fully correlates the expansion of Space-time with the speed of light and with Gravity.  

Gravity drives Dark-matter to be extraordinarily dense at the center of our cloud like structures of Dark-matter. Now, from the outer edge our original pools of Fragmented-Anti-space (Dark-matter) may be like a cloud transcending to a point where the expansion of Space-time is expanding entirely in one direction, and only towards the center which is all that is required to create a Super-Massive-Black-Hole. When surrounded by Super Massive amounts of itself, there seems no reason why Dark-matter bubble-particles may not completely combine to the point of literally forming massive holes in Space-time. There is now no possible way for these ‘massive holes’ to be split back into bubble-particles. This is because from the edge of these holes the expansion of Space-time is now expanding entirely towards these massive holes, which effectively shuts down the process which maintained Dark-matter as minuscule bubble-particles.  

At this early phase of the universe there is no light. When light appears, the expansion of Space-time will act as a carrier which will stringently correlate the expansion of Space and time with the speed of light. The point from where the expansion of Space-time is expanding entirely in one direction will provide Super-Massive-Black-Holes with event horizons. From event horizons light can now be carried by the expansion of Space-time on a one way journey into Super-Massive-Black-Holes. 

Our fledgling universe now has the conveyance for light, yet it has no light, it already has Gravity for atoms, yet it has no atoms, and it has Super-Massive-Black-Holes for Galaxies to evolve around, yet it has no Galaxies.

Naked-Super-Massive-Black-Holes trapped within rapidly expanding Space-time, are now primed and ready to provide Galaxies with a powerful heart to form around and rapidly evolve from. Importantly, a process we have called ‘Massless Accretion’ appropriately separates Super-Massive-Black-Hole formation from their substantially smaller Stellar Black-hole cousins.  

Problems solved.                                                                          

 

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One of my all time favorite images; the core of Galaxy NGC 4261 ejects Matter from the region of a possible Black Hole.

Image Credit: Walter Jaffe/Leiden Observatory, Holland Ford/JHU/STScl, and NASA.

 

The relationship which correlates Black Holes with the expansion of the Universe.

To provide energy to transform into Matter, the beginning of our Big-Stretch universe does not require a colossal, inconceivably powerful, and unknown form of energy to suddenly appear everywhere from nowhere. Nor does our universe require another colossal, inconceivably powerful, and unknown form of Dark-energy to once again unexpectedly appear everywhere from nowhere to accelerate Galaxies outwards. Such implausible concepts of colossal, inconceivably powerful, and unknown forms of energy literally appearing for no known reasons are so highly improbable that these concepts should be considered highly unlikely, if not totally impossible. Decades of persistent science cannot solve or directly detect ether of these unknown forms of energy. 

Within a Big-Stretch universe the process driving expansion of Space-time is caused primarily by Space-time expanding into emptiness and in the same way as water may begin its journey as a placid stream gradually speeding up to be a fast flowing, violent rapid of water immediately before a waterfall. This same process is already known and partly understood by Science where it creates Black Holes. We say ‘partly understood’ because Science today does not understand the very source of Gravity. Within a Big-Stretch universe the source of Gravity is entirely understood and so it can be shown how and why the same process which provides Gravity is most likely self responsible for the expansion of Space-time. The key connection here is the ‘speed’ of light.

The Reasoning:

Within our Big-Stretch universe light travels into a Black-Hole for the same exact reason that light radiates in all directions.

Photons (light and other mass-less-particles) within a Big-Stretch universe are simply carried along with the expansion of Space-time. Light at the event horizon of a Black Hole has a one way path towards the Black Hole because Space-time is expanding so uneven at the event horizon that it is expanding entirely towards the Black Hole at the speed of light.

A Black Hole is essentially created by the same emptiness which our universe is expanding into. Consequently, away from a Black Hole, Space-time is being driven (expanding) away in all directions by essentially the same process which creates a Black Hole. As a result photons (light) speed away in all directions at the same speed for the same reason. There is plainly no other known process capable of such a mammoth task of expanding our universe and a Big-Stretch universe has it in place from the very beginning.

I cannot express the significant of this enough; light travels into a Black Hole at 299,792,458 metres per second, and light travels into a the outer realm of Anti-space at 299,792,458 metres per second which is the same speed for the same reason. By coordinating with a Black Hole in this way we have a perfect high correlation to account for the ‘expansion of all Space-time’, which now naturally correlates with light speeding away in all directions at 299,792,458 metres per second. For the same correlated reason, a minuscule particle of Dark-matter attracts only a minuscule or puny amount of expansion of Space-time to itself. This small attraction of Space-time will be responsible for providing the said ‘puny force’ of Gravity, which is beyond doubt capable of truly great accomplishments. We will later show exactly how this very same coordinated mechanism provides and regulates Gravity. 

One may think that, with the concept of Anti-space, I have been describing a universe inside of a giant Black Hole and that the Gravity effect would crush our universe. No! Just the opposite is true, this crushing affect is only caused by Matter pushing into itself. The mechanism for Gravity is derived from the interaction of expanding Space-time with the emptiness of Anti-space. Neither expanding Space-time nor the emptiness of non-expanding Anti-space by itself possesses Gravity. Actually it is incorrect to say anything possesses Gravity because to do so suggests that Gravity is a force. Accordingly, one needs to also totally eliminate any notion or thought that Gravity is some type of ‘attracting force’ which somehow radiates out from Matter. Gravity is in truth a fairly simple, fully explainable two part mechanism. The source of Gravity is nothing more than the practice of a particle-of-matter maintaining or attempting to maintain its natural stationary position at ‘stationary equilibrium’ at the center of expansion of Space and time.

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 A quick insight into Gravity.

Science has a good understanding of the laws of Gravity and so science can accurately measure Gravity however, the very source of Gravity still defies discovery. 


Image: A common analogy used for explaining Gravity.

The bowling ball representing an object of mass, such as the Earth, and the trampoline net where it is distorted or curved near the bowling ball, represents Space-time.

I do understand the idea of this analogy however, it always appears to me like a pot hole in a road and I always have a little difficulty converting it in my mind to a complete three dimensional state. For example if I place the golf ball anywhere under the net the analogy fails and is problematical of contending with non expanding bent space. I become totally confounded determining just why an object, like a golf ball will actually fall towards the bowling ball rather than just float away. Yes, by following the curved space it will fall due to Gravity, but how does Gravity actually make the golf ball move and give it the momentum so as it can fall?

The simple reason why this (above) illustration will not work (within a Big-Stretch universe) is it fails to show expansion. One can ‘warp or bend’ Space-time as much as you like however you will not produce any Gravity. To set in motion the mechanism responsible for Gravity one must have warped (expanding more in one direction) ‘expanding’ Space-time. Likewise, time dilation can only occur if Space-time is expanding everywhere, if Space-time was not expanding within Galaxies the rate of time would be the same throughout the Galaxy, and the rate of time would be at a standstill.


To better understand Gravity within a Big-Stretch universe rather than referring to all Space-time warped in close proximity to Earth (like the bowling ball analogy), one should refer to how Space-time in close proximity to Earth is ‘expanding more' towards Earth from all observable (fixed) reference points. With a concept of expanding Space-time, one can now understand in a three dimensional way, how a golf ball or any other object will be funnelled towards the Earth regardless of its position. A particle-of-matter simply ‘moves’ to maintain its natural ‘stationary position’ at ‘stationary equilibrium’ at the center of (even) expansion of Space and time.

Space-time within a Big-Stretch universe expands more stretched or warped from all observed reference points the closer an observer is to Earth.  

I have watched programs on TV, read books and websites which explain how Gravity (somehow) warps or bends Space or Space-time. I am always curious as to why the most vital word ’expanding’ is repeatedly omitted from 'Space or Space-time' while explaining Gravity. Within a Big-Stretch universe without expansion there can be no Gravity.

It is as if science believes Space-time is only expanding between Galaxies causing Galaxies to move apart, and because of Gravity, Space-time is not expanding within Galaxies. There is a fear that Space-time expanding within Galaxies would inflate Galaxies themselves, like the dots have grown on this balloon, however raw expanding Space-time does not act this way.

A Big-Stretch universe does not need perform a balancing act between inflation and Gravity to avoid inflating Galaxies themselves with expanding Space-time, meaning there is no possibility of raw expanding Space-time pushing you and me apart and there is no conundrum of Space-time expanding in some regions of the universe, and Space-time not expanding in other regions.

Within our Big-Stretch universe, raw, massless and particle-less space expands as freely within Galaxies as is does between Galaxies, expanding through Matter as if it were not there which eliminates many quandaries. Within a Big-Stretch universe raw Space-time is expanding within all regions including between you and me. Raw expanding Space-time is like neutrinos which pass through ordinary Matter unobstructed, only more so. 

All can be and will be completely and totally explained with expansion of Space and time but first we should think about creating some Matter.

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