How Galaxies first Formed.

‘Fountain Formation’.

by Richard Freeman.

Solving the puzzle of different types of Galaxy formation, including the age and momentum of their stars.

After decades since proposing the Big-Bang theory, science is still unable to explain Galaxy formation by way of a Big-Bang. Science has calculated that their Gravity is plainly too puny to bring first matter together, and how can it be possible to introduce Matter within different regions of different types of Galaxies to match the age and momentum of their stars? Obvious Super-Massive-Black-Holes play an important part in Galaxy formation, but how? How is it possible for Gravity to first draw Matter to an area which must become the center of the Galaxy, then have many of the very oldest stars residing in the far outer regions? Such a process must surly produce the oldest stars at the center, progressing to very young stars in the outer reaches! It is obvious that it has not yet proved possible to account for the observed configuration of Galaxies by way of a Big-Bang.

Within a Big-Stretch universe the observed age and momentum of stars within different regions of difference Galaxies is powerful evidence of where matter was first created. The general age of stars within different regions of difference Galaxies tells us the time frame required for Matter to reach these areas and accumulate in sufficient concentrations to form stars within these regions. The general momentum of stars within different regions of difference Galaxies tells us the most plausible path of Matter which formed these stars. If one is to clearly explain Galaxy formation, it is imperative that the general age and momentum of stars within different regions of different Galaxies can without difficulty be specifically matched to their source of Matter.  

Like so many other aspects of a Big-Bang universe scientists today are struggling to provide methods for the formation of Galaxies. The difficulty is providing for methods to introduce matter at different times and with different momentum to match the age and momentum of different stars within different regions of different types of Galaxies.

The difficulty for an instant Big-Bang universe is all Matter is introduced instantly and all the same way which has science still wrestling with providing an explanation which can match the many different scenarios required for Galaxy formation.

One really needs to introduce Matter in different ways to produce different scenarios which will form different types of Galaxies. Common sense dictates that the regions where the oldest stars reside should be the regions in which Matter was first able to congregate so as to become dense enough to form the first stars. 

Beyond doubt, the biggest clue for how Galaxy formation occurred lies within the age and momentum of their stars. There has to first be Matter available where the oldest stars are observed to be and Matter must be given the correct momentum to match the different momentum of stars within different regions of different types of Galaxies. The configuration of different types of Galaxies provides further strong clues of where matter was produced and how it was introduced to form a required type of Galaxy. Because Stars within Globular Clusters orbit Galaxies in both directions, Matter for these stars will require momentum in both directions, and because Globular Clusters contain many of the oldest stars, Matter must be available to first accumulate where Globular Clusters reside within the far outer regions of Galaxies. Sounds very complicated, however our method of forming Galaxies does not require a complex scenario of unlikely events and can easily match the many different scenarios required to form all types of Galaxies.

It is imperative that Galaxy formation within a Big-Stretch universe strongly reinforces and adds substantial credibility to our explanation for Matter creation. For obviously reasons I have called this method for Galaxy formation ‘Fountain Formation’. It uses simple rational thinking where the momentum of ejected Matter is slowed by the Gravity from its parent Super-massive-Black-Hole. Matter with less ejected momentum will have a shorter journey than Matter with more ejected momentum. Matter which is ejected far will naturally become sparse. Strong Gravity within our early universe will naturally slow and redirect some Matter on a return journey back towards its parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole.

Galaxy formation occurred very early in the accepted age of the universe so ideally, Galaxy formation should follow on as an extended part of the Matter creation process.

Amazingly, unlike a Big-Bang universe, a Big-Stretch universe can easily make perfect sense of the observed age and momentum of stars within different regions of different Galaxies.

Within a Big-Stretch universe we begin our Galaxy formation with Super-Massive-Black-Holes expelling newly created Matter by way of plumes or jets from central regions near the poles of the Super-Massive-Black-Holes.

Quite simply, by merely varying the momentum and angle at which Matter is ejected, a Big-Stretch universe can introduce Matter in different ways which will provide different scenarios to suit the different types of Galaxies which will eventually be created. Galaxy formation may use any single or combination of ways illustrated to form a required type of Galaxy. 

The volume of Matter ejected will govern the original size of the Galaxy and Gravity from the parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole will provide the means to regularize both Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies.


Because this process reminds me of a fountain, we will call it ‘Fountain Formation’.

 

Think of these plumes or jets of matter like a fire hose with an adjustable nozzle:

Forming Elliptical Galaxies.

Aim the nozzle of the fire hose up into the air and adjust it to produce a fine fan shape spray and most of the water will not go very far into the air and so gains little momentum as it falls back with Gravity, quickly surrounding the area around the nozzle with mist.

This will be the setting for our plumes of matter to form large and small Elliptical Galaxies dependant on the size of the plume.

These Galaxies will form like a ball of mist, smoothly transcending into outer Halos containing Globular Clusters of stars. This setting also produces the Galactic Bulge of Spiral Galaxies.

Because with this setting Matter has little momentum and the shortest distant to travel before settling out and becoming concentrated, this will produce stars fairly quickly but with little angular momentum. These stars are by now old.

Credit: NASA, ESA, R.M. Crockett (University of Oxford, U.K.), S. Kaviraj (Imperial College London and University of Oxford, U.K.), J. Silk (University of Oxford), M. Mutchler (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore), R. O'Connell (University of Virginia, Charlottesville), and the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee.

Elliptical Galaxies Contain primary old Stars with little momentum.

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Forming Spiral Galaxies.

Now adjust the nozzle half way between a fine fan shape and a tight jet of water. Much more of the water is now directed wide, high and afar. There is also less water at the base forming less mist around the nozzle. This setting will produce Spiral Galaxies.

The ‘mist’ around the base will form the Galactic Bulge and, like Elliptical Galaxies, these stars will by now be old. Most of the Matter is quickly expelled out wide of the parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole, before being slowed to a near standstill by Gravity from the parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole.

Slowed by Gravity, just like being caught in a traffic jam, Matter concentrates and forms a distant Galactic Halo where some Matter first clumps to first form the stars which will reside within Globular Clusters.

This nozzle setting has first produce stars within the Galactic Bulge and Galactic Halo so stars within these regions are by now old.

Finally, much of the Matter forming the Galactic Halo is attracted by the Gravity from the parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole, causing Matter to gain new momentum to begin its return journey.

Matter continues to gain sufficient momentum from its return journey to eventually form a Galactic Disc.

In order to form a Galactic Disc it is important that the Matter which forms the Galactic Disc is ejected far away from the Matter which will first become the Galactic Bulge.

This way Matter, as it returns, gains the required momentum to form a Galactic Disc which forms at a later date to the Galactic Bulge.

Lastly (because of the time taken for the return journey), Matter will, over time, become more concentrated within the Galactic Disc, producing a concentration of, what are today, primary middle-aged stars which will have momentum gained from the Matter which formed them.


Credit: Hubble data: NASA, ESA, and A. Zezas (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics); GALEX data: NASA JPL-Caltech, GALEX Team, J. Huchra et al. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics); Spitzer data: NASA/JPL/Caltech/Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. 

Spiral Galaxy: Galactic Bulge contains primary old Stars, Galactic Disc contains primary middle age Stars, with outer Globular Clusters of very old Stars.

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Forming Irregular Galaxies.

Now to form our Irregular Galaxies we will have the nozzle on our fire hose adjusted similarly, or possibly as more of a jet, to the setting which made Spiral Galaxies.

With this setting some of the Matter is ejected so far that it is all but out of reach of the Gravity of its parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole.

Having been ejected far and sparsely this Matter merely has only its own, self produced, Gravity to finally clump it together. This process takes a long time to accumulate concentrations of Matter which will produce stars. Because of the timeframe these Galaxies will still today, consist of mostly young stars. And lacking a central parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole to evolve around, these Galaxies will develop as odd and irregular shapes. One would naturally expect if this process was factual, many of these Irregular Galaxies would today orbit their larger parent regular Galaxy which is indeed (golly gosh) what is observed.


Credit: NASA, ESA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: M. Gregg (Univ. Calif.-Davis and Inst. for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Lawrence Livermore Natl. Lab.) 

Irregular Galaxies Contain primary young Stars.

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Forming Globular Clusters.

It is extremely difficult to account for Globular Clusters within a Big-Bang universe so consequently just how Globular Clusters formed is still today a poorly understood subject. How could it be possible for matter to first concentrate in these far, outer regions of Galaxies where many of the universe’s first (now oldest) stars formed?

Within a Big-Bang universe it would be commonsensical for Matter which is driven together by Gravity to first concentrate and form the very first stars in the region which will become the center of the Galaxy. Gravity increases as the central region attracts more matter which form new stars which all sounds very good until one realizes that the outer regions of Galaxies will always be inclined to have the newest, youngest stars.  

So how can it be possible that many of the oldest stars are the most distant from the center of the Galaxy? And what mechanism could possibly have been responsible for some Globular Clusters to orbit in one direction while others orbit in the opposite direction.

This most difficult and near impossible situation for a Big-Bang universe is straightforwardly simple for a Big-Stretch universe which has Fountain Formation.

One must provide a method for both Spiral and Elliptical Galaxies where Matter can concentrate in outer reaches of Galaxies very early in the Galaxy formation process.

With Fountain Formation one can see how first Matter may easily concentrate in outer regions of Galaxies where the Globular Clusters will form. Matter is ejected in both directions which allows these Stars to form Globular Clusters orbiting in both directions.

It was obvious within my Big-Stretch universe that Globular Clusters (because of the way Matter is introduced) may quite possibly orbit Galaxies in both directions. I thought that this could not be true to what is observed which began to worry me. When I investigated the orbits of Globular Clusters I discovered that some Globular Clusters orbit in the direction of rotation of a Galaxy and others do indeed (golly gosh) orbit in the opposite direction.

Stars within Globular Clusters form from Matter which did not take part in a time-demanding return journey back towards its parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole.

This can easily explain why stars within Globular Clusters should be some of the universe’s first stars and so should now be amongst the oldest.  

Science has indeed discovered the oldest stars within Galaxies are in Globular Clusters outside of the main galactic discs.

It is thought a Globular Cluster’s symmetrical shape is the result of being tightly bound by Gravity but I will offer another explanation which may have assisted this symmetrical shape to evolve. 

These symmetrical shapes could occur in a similar way to lightly rolling hamburger mince between the palms of your hands to create a ball of hamburger mince.

A Globular Cluster’s original symmetrical shape  may possibly be the result of forming while exposed to Matter which has momentum in different directions, and now, consequently, has exposure to Gravity from the many other Globular Clusters orbiting Galaxies in both same and opposite directions, further enhancing the symmetrical shape. 


Credit: ESA/HUBBLE and NASA.

Globular Clusters Contain very old Stars.

 

Only ‘Fountain Formation’ is capable of clearly accounting for the different age and momentum of stars within different regions of different Galaxies.

Spiral Galaxies and Elliptical Galaxies may first appear as more Irregular shapes in their adolescence when the first starburst was occurring. This is much like turning on the lights of a whole city, where some regions are lit before others.    

We now have a very clear road map, from the same source, for the development of all facets of all types of Galaxies.

In fact, our explanation of Galaxy formation actually fits like a glove, to the three most common types of Galaxies observed which strongly reinforces the way our Matter is first created.

We are only generalizing with the age of stars because, if there is an adequate supply of Matter, star forming may begin at any time and is an ongoing process. There is not necessarily a cut and dried rule for as I have learnt from being a fisherman Mother Nature rarely obeys hard and fast rules.

Also, Galaxies collide and combine to form a variety of different shapes, combinations, and sizes. For example Galaxies may ‘capture’ younger or older stars during Galaxy collisions.

We have importantly, nevertheless, been able to produce the three most common types of Galaxies and without difficulty match star formation to the average age and momentum of stars within different regions within different types of Galaxies to what is today most commonly observed, which is something the Big-Bang universe cannot do.

Amazingly, if one creates Matter in the way a Big-Stretch universe creates Matter, Galaxy formation for all types of Galaxies, automatically falls into place and can easily and perfectly be fully explained. Importantly this is all achieved with similar time, and same types of beginnings.


More images (from book) for Galaxy formation:


How a Spiral Galaxy forms within a Big-Stretch universe.

 

 

 

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What fuel could have powered Quasars and be sustainable for millions of years?

 

Another example of the self solving characteristics of the Big-Stretch model:  

Quasars are one of the most powerful objects ever observed in our universe today and have been observed with energy outputs trillions of times the output of our sun and may exceed hundreds of times more than the energy output of our entire Milky-Way-Galaxy. Quasars emit this huge amount of energy from a relative small area which necessitates far more efficiency than even the nuclear fusion which powers our sun.  

Quasars are observed at the hearts of ‘first light’ Galaxies. 

What fuel could have been available in our earliest universe which provided an extraordinarily high and sustained amount of energy for millions of years? A Big-Stretch universe has a possible answer.

Science has developed a complex theory which involves matter forming an accretion disc where it is exposed to incredible heat and angular momentum causing intense gravitational stress and friction. This method is said to release about 25% of the matter’s energy before the matter is fed into the same Super-Massive-Black-Hole which powers the whole process. This process is also said not to be sustainable for the period of time Quasars were most prolific, that is from 9 billion to 13 billion years ago. Quasars would simple consume their entire Galaxy, long before this period elapses. While researching this subject I have noted that this process is said to be speculative for it does not have the safe standing of, for instance, the theory of stellar development.

It just so happens that a Big-Stretch universe has a much simpler, completely efficient, more powerful, and completely sustainable method available which causes matter to unlock and release all 100% of its energy. During the creation of Matter, a portion of Anti-matter could be expected to survive the immense Gravity of the parent Super-Massive-Black-Hole. This Anti-matter momentary survives before being annihilated with ordinary matter. Such annihilation releases energy which quite possibly powers the observed brightness of a Quasar. Such a process could easily be capable releasing incredibly large amounts of energy from a small area for many millions of years. This method may later operate in combination with today’s accepted model giving Quasars an additional boost in energy output. 

Another considered possibility at this same time is some Matter which has journeyed back to its source naturally succumbs to the massive Gravity of the central Super-Massive-Black-Hole where it first creates an accretion disc and then becomes mixed with the Matter production process. The Matter production process now becomes overcrowded with excess Matter which allows some Matter to come in contact with Anti-matter before it is directed into the Super-Massive-Black-Hole.

Astronomers have previously proposed Anti-matter and Matter annihilation as a possible energy source for Quasars, but it is now thought to be no possible way for Anti-matter to be available in this area. The problem within a Big-Bang universe is getting Anti-matter to this area and keeping it separated from matter, for this reason this concept has been discarded by science. A Big-Stretch universe has a bountiful supply of Anti-matter at exactly when and where a sustainable supply of Anti-matter perfectly matches the energy and configuration requirements of Quasars.

 Image Credit: NASA/ESA/G.Bacon,STScI.  

Could the most powerful and brightest known objects ever seen in the universe be fueled by the most powerful and most efficient fuel known in the universe? This explanation cannot be used within a Big-Bang universe because there is not the supply here of Anti-matter as there is within a Big-Stretch universe. Most fittingly, our supply of Anti-matter within a Big-Stretch universe corresponds to the concise location and exact time at which Quasars actively displayed incredible brightness within our earliest universe. 

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