Enter Dark Energy.

"The observable actuality that Galaxies are now ‘accelerating’ away is powerful, matching evidence of ‘Outer’ Gravity, which only the superbly correlated concepts of a Big-Stretch universe can entirely explain".

Theoretical physics has a perplexing assortment of different theories for inflation to choose from which are said to be responsible for the initial expansion of the Big-Bang universe. I for one have no hope of sorting out Cosmic inflation from Old inflation or New inflation from Cosmological inflation, not to mention Universe nucleation, Slow-roll inflation, Chaotic inflation, Eternal inflation, Stringy inflation, or just Inflation. It appears there are so many different bewildering ideas for inflation mainly because of the difficulty applying these ‘same but different’ theories to the Big-Bang universe and the problems created. This is a common dilemma facing so much of mathematical science, so many different theories, all portraying to be mathematical correct, but none may have really, actually occurred. Generally it is thought rapid inflation occurred for a small fraction of a second at the Big-Bang. Driving this incredibly powerful short burst of inflation was a mysterious and unknown form of unstable energy, which is said to have come from a mysterious, nonexistent source.

For now inflation is still occurring, but is now just coasting along like a car which motor has cut out. Currently the Big-Bang universe is said to have another mysterious and unknown form of energy which is similarly said to have come from a mysterious and unknown source. Called Dark-energy, it is independently said to be responsible for accelerating the speed of which galaxies are now moving away.  

Our Big-Stretch universe is naturally expanding, from the outer edges, without the need for Dark-energy. Space-time within a Big-Stretch universe expands as freely within Galaxies, as it expands between the Galaxies. Within our Big-Stretch universe, raw, massless and particle-less space expands through Matter as if it were not there which eliminates many quandaries. Raw massless Space-time is like neutrinos which pass through ordinary Matter unobstructed, only more so. This means massless Space-time also occupies the very same area which ordinary Matter actually occupies.

The frequently used analogy of an expanding balloon, depicting Galaxies seemingly speeding away from each other, for no other reason than raw massless Space-time expanding between them, will not be correct for a Big-Stretch universe. Another analogy often used is the baking of a raisin bun where the raisins are moved apart by the rising dough. With both the analogy of the balloon and the resin bun if one removes the mass of the expanding material the analogy will not work, which is why this concept cannot possibly work with whole Galaxies. This works for a balloon because there is the mass of the rubber between the dots and there is the mass of air being added to the balloon. It is correct for the raisin bun because of the mass of the expanding dough but it will not work for Space-time because the raw fabric of Space-time itself is mass-less and particle-less, making it totally impossible for raw expanding Space-time to move heavy objects of mass in this way.

In a Big-Bang universe I completely understand the concept that the Galaxies are not moving through space where it is said that space is just expanding between the Galaxies while the Galaxies remain stationary but it still bothers me how the mass of whole Galaxies are becoming physically further apart.

Because the raw fabric of expanding Space-time is both mass-less and particle-less, expanding Space-time does not have the mass or body to move two particles-of-matter apart, let alone the mass of whole Galaxies in this way. Consequently, within a Big-Stretch universe it is impossible for expanding raw, massless, particle-less Space-time to act this way. Within a Big-Stretch universe all is achieved with just ‘plain old’ Gravity.

To explain how and why Galaxies are speeding away from each other we will need to break Galaxies down to their individual particles-of-matter because this can only be comprehensively explained at the scale of individual particles-of-matter.


Contents of the Big-Bang Universe.  Image Credit: NASA.   (Note the massive amount of energy (red) required to accelerate Galaxies with Dark-energy.)

Science has now discovered that this speeding apart of clusters of Galaxies unexpectedly experienced an accelerating phase which continues to present day. To account for this science has decided to insert Dark-energy which science says just mysteriously appeared everywhere within the universe from an unknown source to coincide with this same accelerating phase. Such a truly mammoth task obvious requires such a mammoth amount of energy (red in the above pie-chart) that it would now completely dominate the contents of the whole universe. Even though the proposed Dark-energy is said to be everywhere no one can detect it and no one knows what it is.

Matter within our universe was produced by a process where Dark-matter particles in the vicinity of Super-Massive-Black-Holes are accelerated to light of near light speeds. Energy is obtained by using the properties of particles of Dark-matter to collapse waves of expansion of Space and time. This slowed the expansion of Space-time. Matter is then expelled within jets which are today referred to as Quasars.
Consequently, as the universe produced a profusion of Matter it slowed the expansion of Space-time which slowed Outer Gravity which slowed the gravitational acceleration of Galaxies. When production of Matter slowed Galaxies were able to freely accelerate again with Outer Gravity. Likewise, as the abundance of Quasar like objects producing Matter increased, the acceleration of Galaxies slowed, and then speeded up as the abundance of Quasar like objects decreased. 
After studying dozens of graphs, I have drawn the above overlay showing the abundance of Quasar like objects and the acceleration of Galaxies. The evidence is seen here where the acceleration of Galaxies curve flattens a little at the time when our matter producing Quasars were most prolific. This provides direct evidence of how all Matter was truly created and is exactly what one would expect when Matter is truly produced in this manner.

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Why Dark-energy ?

For many years Science thought, in agreement with the Big-Bang-Theory that expansion would by now be slowing down. It was thought, with a degree of almost complete certainty that the inward Gravity derived from all of the Matter in the universe would by now, 13.75 billion years after the initial inflation burst at the Big-Bang, be slowing the outward speed of Galaxies.

Extract from NASA Website:                                                                                  

“Then came 1998 and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae that showed that, a long time ago, the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. So the expansion of the Universe has not been slowing due to Gravity, as everyone thought, it has been accelerating. No one expected this, no one knew how to explain it. But something was causing it.

Eventually theorists came up with three sorts of explanations. Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein's theory of Gravity, one that contained what was called a "cosmological constant." Maybe there was some strange kind of energy-fluid that filled space. Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein's theory of Gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration. Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called Dark-energy.”

Credit: NASA:  See full story here:                      http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-is-Dark-energy/

I simply adore NASA sites.


This may have (really should have) told science that the universe could not have began with a Big-Bang, instead, science decided the best approach was to ‘insert’ a copious amount of undetectable and totally mystifying sort of ‘energy’ into the universe to explain this unexpected and unexplainable speeding up of Galaxies.

When I Google the words ‘Dark energy’ I quickly see the descriptions; ‘Proposed unexplained force’, ‘Mysterious quantity’, ‘Perplexing unknown form of energy’, ‘One of the great challenges of astronomy’, ‘The existence of dark energy is still so puzzling’, Biggest mystery in the universe’ and ‘Nobody claims to understand’.

Today, more than a decade since hypothesizing this puzzling theoretical form of energy, what Dark-energy is and where it could have possibly or plausibly come from, still remains a complete and absolute mystery.

The most bizarre part is the ‘common acceptance of science’ of something which is astoundingly vague, totally undetectable and has merely been hypothesized.

Maybe Dark-energy came from the same nowhere place the Big-Bang came from! Please forgive me for saying this but we fisherman would call all of this ‘a can of worms’.

All theories for expanding our universe must avoid inflating the Galaxies like the dots have grown in size on this balloon.


A Big-Stretch universe, thankfully, can increase the speed at which Galaxies are moving away without the need to hypothesize a completely weird, baffling form of 'Dark' energy which bizarrely appears everywhere from nowhere. A Big-Stretch universe can vastly simplify all of this because it very simply has Outer-gravity. Space-time expanding towards the complete void of Anti-space delivers Outer-gravity to our Big-Stretch universe. The answer is uncomplicated and easy, our Galaxies are simply ‘falling’ outwards.

An apple falls (moves) from an apple tree to the ground due to gravity. The apple is made from matter and Galaxies are made from matter. A meteorite is also made from matter and if on a course towards Earth will be accelerated by Gravity as it approaches the Earth. Galaxies are made from matter and are moving (falling) and accelerating in the direction of expansion. Science today cannot explain the very source of Gravity. It is most logical and natural that Galaxies are on the move and are accelerating away from us for the same exact reason that the apple falls to the ground with Gravity. 

**** It can hardly be a coincidence that Galaxies are accelerating in a way which matches the influence of Gravity.****  

A Big-Stretch universe has both Inner-gravity and Outer-gravity. At the source of both Inner-gravity and Outer-gravity is the ‘expansion’ of Space-time.

Outer-gravity is simply delivered at the level of individual particles at the same moment and in complete harmony as common, every day, Inner-gravity. Outer Gravity should not be considered as an entirely new concept. Here on planet Earth, we feel Gravity acting outwards every time the moon or sun passes overhead, giving rise to the ocean’s tides.

Outer-gravity, being the same phenomenon as Inner-gravity, naturally acts in the same way, causing Galaxies or clusters of Galaxies to accelerate apart as they 'free fall’ in the direction which Space-time is expanding. In an environment free from drag an object may never stop accelerating. If there is nothing to work against gravity, no air resistance or drag, then the object will continue to accelerate.

Consequently, Galaxies within a Big-Stretch universe are actually required to be moving apart at an increasing rate. A Big-Stretch universe has no use for any form of Dark-energy.

To conform to the Big-Bang Theory, the speed at which Galaxies are moving away should really be slowing.

To conform to the Big-Stretch Theory, the speed at which Galaxies are moving away should really be increasing which exactly matches what is observed. 

The Big-Bang universe cannot have something as ‘down to Earth’ and simple as Outer-gravity because the Big-Bang universe of Space and time is nonsensically not expanding into anything, so it requires a colossal, totally mystifying force called Dark-energy to expand it by accelerating Galaxies from within. Only the concepts of a Big-Stretch universe can supply Outer-gravity

Dark-energy functions by opposing Gravity which obviously requires a gargantuan amount of energy while our Inner and Outer Gravity function ‘as one’ in subtle, complete harmony. Inner-Gravity and Outer-Gravity are totally combined and delivered in complete unison as just plain old ‘Gravity’.  

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Within our Big-Stretch universe we have already explained how the main Matter creation phase slowed the expansion of Space-time and by doing so weaken Gravity. For our early universe this would have been like applying the brakes to Outer-gravity and releasing the brakes as the main matter creation phase ended. Once this braking effect ended Galaxies again accelerated freely with Outer-gravity in the direction of expansion. The Big-Bang universe had no cause for this phase so Science has decided to ‘insert’ Dark-energy which appears for no known reason and from nowhere. 

An unavoidable ramification of our Big-Stretch model is time ran faster in the beginning causing a further exaggeration of first acceleration which is clearly visible in the beginning of the graph (below). Like all forms of time dilation, if you were there time would always appear normal, but when observed from the now much slower Earth time, acceleration is exaggerated. The faster time shows itself by exaggerating first acceleration.

Matter within our Big-Stretch universe was produced by a process where Dark-matter particles in the vicinity of Super-Massive-Black-Holes are accelerated to light of near light speeds. Energy is obtained by using the properties of particles of Dark-matter to collapse waves of expansion of Space and time. This slowed the expansion of Space-time. Matter is then expelled within jets which are today referred to as Quasars.

Consequently, as the universe produced a profusion of Matter the process slowed the expansion of Space-time which slowed Outer-gravity which slowed the gravitational acceleration of all Galaxies. When the production of Matter slowed, all Galaxies were able to freely accelerate again with Outer-gravity. Likewise, as the abundance of Quasar like objects producing Matter increased, the acceleration of all Galaxies slowed, and then sped up again as the abundance of Quasar like objects decreased. Reacceleration has to be slower than the ‘first’ acceleration because all Gravity is now weaker and time now runs slower. 

 

After studying several of graphs,many of which appear slightly different, I have drawn the above overlay showing the abundance of Quasar like objects and the acceleration of Galaxies. The evidence is seen here where the acceleration of all Galaxies curve levels at the exact time as when our matter producing Quasars were most prolific. One can clearly see the associated correlation which provides clear and direct evidence of how all Matter was truly created and is exactly what one would expect when Matter is truly produced in this manner. We will shortly explain the exact source of Gravity which will conclusively reinforce this concept. 

Because science has no way to explain this reacceleration of all Galaxies (right side of graph), science has decided to insert a weird and overwhelming form of (Dark) energy here which is said to account for this reacceleration. These two curves are beautifully correlated, clearly showing how as the abundance of Quasar like objects increased it pulled the acceleration of all Galaxies curve down, and released it again as the abundance of Quasar like objects decreased. Our Big-Stretch universe has no need for Dark-energy, Galaxies are simply falling outwards with Gravity.

In similar reasoning to the process of hydro power generators slowing falling water by robbing it of its kinetic energy, the price of Matter for our early Big-Stretch universe is a slowing down of the rate of the expansion of Space-time. This allows a possible highest intense level of Gravity to idle back to what is observed today. Our Big-Stretch universe obeys physics and the ‘Conservation of energy’ law. There is no need for a Big-Bang and there is no need for Dark-energy. 

Within a Big-Bang universe there is no reason to seek this correlation which is so undoubtedly real, so one should ask; how could Quasar like objects have this kind of influence on all Galaxies? Within our Big-Stretch universe the answer is very clear. This is called negative correlation where the relationship between two variables is shown when one variable increases as the other decreases.

Within a Big-Stretch universe Galaxies are simply falling outwards. To completely understand this one needs to know and understand the precise source of Gravity, only then is all revealed.


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