Background Radiation.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

The Cosmic Microwave Background, or CMB, is radiation that fills the universe and can be detected in every direction.

Image: Credit: NASA/WMAT Science Team.

Said to be a snapshot of the oldest light in our Universe, from when the universe was just 380,000 years old, and from a time when hydrogen atoms were forming.

This image is often wrongly said to be the afterglow of the Big-Bang. It really refers to first light created some 380,000 years after the said Big-Bang and relates to the formation of hydrogen atoms and the decoupling of matter and radiation. In other words this is not a cooled down image of the Big-Bang itself as loosely expressed. It is only speculative that this light (from the around the time of the formation of hydrogen atoms) is proof that there was once a Big-Bang.

Consequently, this image is really only evidence that our universe when through an early phase of forming hydrogen atoms and from a time when the expanding universe must have been fairly compact. Our Big-Stretch universe is also expanding, and so is obviously required to undergo a similar compact phase coinciding with the acquisition and transformation of energy leading to the formation of hydrogen atoms.

When one applies our expansion time dilation, Matter creation within our Big-Stretch universe was probably also peaking with the formation of hydrogen atoms at this same time. 

Like many, I have been fascinated by this captivating image. The image truly has a captivating story in time to tell, but a story which could very easily be misread. I have read that a Big-Bang should have been so uniform that Galaxies could not have formed. This image with its speckled, not uniform, appearance is said to be a revelation for a Big-Bang universe because it shows that the Big-Bang had 'somehow' managed to develop in this ever so slight irregular manner which would have allowed Galaxies to form. Within our Big-Stretch universe this is the only way it could have possibly been. 

Within our Big-Stretch universe this ‘background radiation’ would have been expelled from the hearts of trillions of developing Galaxies, including our own Milky Way Galaxy, naturally giving this image its speckled, not uniform appearance.

Much of this non uniform appearance lies in the way this image has been color coded. In actual fact the irregularity is so slight that it only varies by around one part in ten thousand.

The image is compelling evidence that the universe underwent a hot phase. Was this hot phase from the phase of a Big-Bang universe when hydrogen atoms were forming or from the phase when hydrogen atoms were forming within a Big-Stretch universe? It is a little like coming across the burnt out remains of a house. There is compelling evidence that, at one point of time, the house was very hot but what exactly caused the blaze could be a point of conjecture and speculation.

This image, as a result of the manner by which it has been color coded, may best depict a Big-Stretch universe with hot, Matter-creation areas peaking in red and yellow and cool areas colored blue. It is as if one can actually see where hot Matter and thermal radiation left over from the energy to Matter transformation process is being expelled from Primeval Quasars. This image may well relate to a period coinciding with a deluge of matter production within our Big-Stretch universe. When I study this image I can easily ‘see’ my Big-Stretch universe in it.



I doubt that it is only a strange coincidence that the very same satellites designed especially to detect comic microwave radiation and create images of this kind, have vividly exposed a colossal amount of similar but ‘not same’ activity at the heart of our own Milky Way Galaxy. The activity emits an extraordinary amount of energy which is said to be a million times the energy of an exploding star. Electrons (Matter) and positrons (Anti-matter) are being produced. Scientists have proposed an array of several explanations but the true reason continues to be broadly debated in the astro physics community.

Could this now be the ‘smoking gun’ which once, long ago, produced all of the Matter within our mighty Milky Way Galaxy?

This 2010 NASA illustration shows just how large the Fermi Bubbles are. The Bubbles are enormous - about half the size of our Milky Way, but vertical instead of horizontal. Note the purple outline around the lower edges which are x-ray emissions in addition to the pink gamma-ray emissions. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of light. 

(Detecting a gamma ray with an energy of 511 keV is a signature of an electron and a positron annihilating one another.)

The following is a number of tantalizing snippets, pasted together, from many different articles relating to these type of events and outflows from the center of our Milky Way Galaxy;..............

 “An orbiting observatory has detected a mysterious cloud of antimatter particles that appears to be boiling up from the center of our galaxy to form a massive fountain spewing more than 17,400 trillion miles into space.

Scientists who announced the discovery at a scientific meeting here today said they were amazed, perplexed and delighted by the enormous eruption apparently shooting 3,000 light-years out from the heart of Earth's home galaxy, the Milky Way”.

“Purcell saw something on his computer screen at Northwestern University that nobody could have predicted: a veritable colossus of antimatter, a vast fountain spewing out from the center of our galaxy and reaching trillions of miles into space.

What could have produced such a huge outpouring? That's what mystified astrophysicists”.

“The discovery not only changes scientists' perspective on our home galaxy but should provide new insights to the workings of basic processes in other galaxies throughout the universe, the researchers said”.

How much antimatter is there really?

”The Nature article gives us some important facts. First, the antimatter signal of interest is the 511 keV511 keV line. This is the result of a positron (e e ) annihilating with an electron (e−e−), producing two high-energy gamma-rays (photons, γγ): e e−→2γ.e e−→2γ”.

“Both gamma-rays have an energy of exactly 511 keV511 keV, as can be shown from simple conservation of energy and momentum. Thus we know the antimatter is specifically some wayward positrons (anti-electrons), not whole atoms and molecules and such”.

"The antimatter cloud could have been formed by multiple star bursts occurring in the central region of the galaxy, jets of material from a black hole near the galactic center, the merger of two neutron stars, or it could have been produced by an entirely different source," said James D. Kurfess, head of the Gamma and Cosmic Ray Astrophysics Branch at the Naval Research Laboratory”.

“Using the OSSE experiment, the OSSE team found antimatter positrons to be annihilating with normal matter electrons at an astonishing rate. Scientists are speculating on the origin of this antimatter, with a "black-hole lobby" favoring antimatter production in the jets of black holes”.

"It is like finding a new room in the house we have lived in since childhood," comments Dr. Dermer. "And the room is not empty -- it has some engine or boiler making hot gas filled with annihilating antimatter. No one is certain whether the antimatter comes from exploding stars, black holes or something entirely different, and that is what makes this discovery so exciting."

“The antimatter cloud was (first) discovered in the 1970s by gamma-ray detectors flown on balloons. Scientists have proposed a wide range of explanations for the origin of the antimatter, which is exceedingly rare in the cosmos. For years, many theories centered around radioactive elements produced in supernovae, prodigious stellar explosions. Others suggested that the positrons come from neutron stars, novae, or colliding stellar winds.

“Outflows of charged particles”;

 “A "haze" of microwave emission previously spotted by WMAP and Planck space telescopes”;

“The Planck Satellite was able to clearly observe the "haze" radiation from the center of the Milky Way”;

 “The exact source of the microwaves and gamma-rays is not known with any certainty so there are quite a few theories being floated about”;  

“The first pure gamma-ray jets ever found”;

 “The radiation has a known spectrum which is "synchrotron emission";

 “Synchrotron emission originates from collisions of electrons (Matter) and positrons (Anti-matter) circulating at very high speeds”;

“The radiation cannot be explained by the structural mechanisms in the galaxy and it cannot be radiation from supernova explosions”;

“Otherwise, we have discovered an absolutely new and unknown physics mechanism of acceleration of particles in the Galactic Center”;

“The Planck Satellite has observed a very unique radiation from the center of the Milky Way”;

 “The WMAP, Planck and Fermi observations do not provide enough scientific evidence to definitively identify the source of the radiation”.


Possibly the Matter creation process has now exhausted its supply of Dark-matter so now no whole atoms can now be produced. The process can now only produce electrons (Matter) and positrons (Anti-matter). 


The contents of this web page are the intellectual property of Richard. S. Freeman. You may not reproduce, translate, edit, publish, distribute, or host this document in any way without the permission of the Author, Richard Freeman.

Said to be a snapshot of the oldest light in our Universe, and from when the universe was just 380,000 years old. When one applies expansion time dilation, Matter creation within our Big-Stretch universe was probably also peaking with the formation of hydrogen atoms at this same time.